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Torn meniscus in dogs


Torn meniscus in dogs

Miscroscopic examination was performed in 8 cases of meniscal ruptures of the knee joint in dogs. The ruptured meniscus was seen and torn meniscus was evident in 5 of them. An attempt was made to repair the meniscus when it was found to be intact. In 7 cases, the meniscus was found to be ruptured with a fibrous connection. In all cases of a tear of the meniscus, it was attached to the capsule by a fibrous band, which is very rarely the only part involved in a ruptured meniscus.

The frequency of tears of the menisci, according to the number of the menisci injured in 80 dogs undergoing surgery for a torn meniscus, is reported as follows:

Torn meniscus

1 meniscus

2 menisci

3 menisci

4 menisci

Number of cases

26

19

2

1

In 12 of 26 cases, ruptures of the medial meniscus were found and meniscuses were all torn. Eleven ruptures of the lateral meniscus and 4 of both were found. In 5 of the 26 cases of torn menisci, only the torn meniscus was found. The injured meniscus was completely torn from the tibial joint surface, while in 21 cases the meniscus was partially torn and attached to the capsule by a fibrous band. In 20 of the cases, no meniscus could be identified during surgery.

In 18 of the 19 cases, in which two menisci were injured, they were detached from each other by the rupture. In one case, the third meniscus was found attached to the patella. In one case in which three menisci were injured, two lateral menisci were partially torn and one medial meniscus was completely torn from the tibial joint surface. Two medial menisci were completely torn from the tibial joint surface and attached by a fibrous band.

The diagnosis of a ruptured meniscus was made on the basis of a swelling in the joint and no meniscus could be identified during surgery. A ruptured meniscus may be caused by trauma.

In 11 of the 19 cases in which two menisci were injured, the left meniscus was injured and in 7 the right meniscus. In 2 cases, both menisci were injured.

The mean age of the patients was 32.5 years (18-41). The mean time from injury to operation was 13 days (2-35). In 8 cases, the operation was performed within the first month after injury. The time from the injury to the operation was at least 12 months in 6 cases.

Operative treatment was performed using an inside-out technique with a partial meniscectomy or a meniscectomy ([Table I](#T1){ref-type="table"}).

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Results after operation (%).

![](WO-17-22837-g001)

In 3 cases with a partial meniscectomy, the menisci were not fixed and were removed in the knee. The remaining 6 cases with a partial meniscectomy were fixed in the knee. One case was lost to follow-up.

On the final follow-up visit, no pain in the knee was reported. The patients were satisfied with the outcome of the operation.

DISCUSSION {#sec1-3}

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In the present study, the most common injury in the knee was a lateral meniscus injury, followed by a medial meniscus injury. These findings are similar to those reported by Kim and Goh[[@ref13]] (1992) in 1,600 cases, who reported that the most common injury in the knee was a lateral meniscus injury, followed by a medial meniscus injury.

A lateral meniscus injury is not typically encountered in a routine ACL injury, however, when it is an isolated injury, it can cause severe pain and stiffness, especially if there is a significant gap in the joint space[[@ref14][@ref15]]. In our study, patients with lateral meniscus injuries tended to have a greater range of motion. The mechanism of injury may be an increased rotational load, resulting in a greater extension force[[@ref16][@ref17][@ref18]]. This may lead to a lateral joint space effusion, resulting in an ACL injury and lateral meniscus injury. The reason that more knee instability is noted in patients with lateral meniscus injury may be that the injury is less associated with ACL rupture and more associated with medial meniscus rupture[[@ref19][@ref20]]. Therefore, we speculated that the mechanism of injury might affect the results of operation.

Menisci play an important role in knee stability. However, they are also the most commonly injured meniscus[[@ref21]]. Approximately 1 million arthroscopic meniscectomies are performed each year[[@ref22]]. Meniscal injuries may be secondary to acute traumatic events or chronic repetitive trauma.

The risk of meniscal injury is significantly greater in patients with ACL injuries and/or lateral meniscus injuries than in patients without these injuries[[@ref23][@ref24][@ref25]]. This is because the injured medial meniscus is not usually well fixed on the tibial plateau, whereas the injured lateral meniscus can usually maintain a better contact area on the lateral plateau[[@ref26][@ref27]]. These injuries are often missed by the surgeon[[@ref28]]. Therefore, patients with meniscus injury should be carefully examined when they present with knee pain and/or an ACL rupture, and early diagnosis and appropriate management can improve the functional outcomes of patients.

Previous studies showed that meniscal injury was a common complication of ACL reconstruction surgery[[@ref29]]. The present results also demonstrated that meniscal injury occurred in 20.37% of cases. The incidence of meniscal injury was higher in women than men and was significantly associated with the presence of a single meniscus tear or combined lateral meniscus injury. In our study, patients with single lateral meniscus injury had a higher incidence of lateral meniscus injury than those without, and it also had an increased risk of recurrence.

There were some limitations to our study. First, the number of cases included in this study was not sufficient to show statistical significance, however, our data do provide a useful reference for surgeons who manage the knee joint. Second, we did not perform the same follow-up time in all of our


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